Al-Haram Mosque in Makkah The Prophet's Mosque in Madinah . Al-Aqsa Mosque Compound in Jerusalem



Islam: A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity


By Hassan Ali El-Najjar


Table of Contents


I. Introduction: Basic Information


1. Islam: A Brief Introduction    


2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and I'hsan    


3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity    


4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an   


5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth   


6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise  


7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?    


8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical in Islamic Teachings


9. Spirit, Soul, Mind, Self, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective  


10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Quran


II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure


11. Islamic Proclamation of Faith


12. Performing Islamic Prayers


13. Giving Zakat, Charity, The Third Islamic Duty


14. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims


15. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam


III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar


16. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran 


17. Angels


18. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran  


19. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran


20. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran


21. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran  


22. Muhammed in the Holy Quran


23. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj


24. The Last Day, The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment


25. God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha


IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in Speech and Deeds


1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran


2. The No (La) Commands


3. The Imperative Commands 




Articles with Islamic Perspective:


Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective


"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture


Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews


Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings  


Are Muslim women second-class citizens  


The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with


Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010


Links to Islamic Topics 2007


Links to Islamic topics 2006


Links to Islamic topics 2005


Links to Islamic topics 2004


Links to Islamic topics, 2003


2002 Links to Islamic topics








A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity




Haj, Pilgrimage:


The Fifth Pillar of Islam


By Hassan Ali El-Najjar


Updated on the 5th of Rajab, 1441 - 29th of March, 2020







1441 - 2020





I seek refuge with Allah from the Stoned Shaytan

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful





A Muslim is required to perform five basic 'Ibadat, or ways of worship, or obligations. They are considered the five pillars of the structure of Islam, which include the proclamation of faith, prayers, giving charity (zakat), fasting the month of Ramadhan, and making Haj, pilgrimage. 


The Haj, pilgrimage to the House of Allah in Makkah, Al-Ka'ba, is the climax of being a Muslim. It is a personal journey for God first but it gives great satisfaction to the Haaj (pilgrim), as he/she leaves everything in this life behind when starting the journey. The pilgrimage to Makkah is also a worldwide conference of Muslims to know one-another, as they come from various nations, racial groups, and ethnic divisions (49: 13). Once they are there, they praise Allah for His countless benefits and bounties they have been enjoying. They are also instructed by Allah to be loving, caring, and tolerant of each other, as they are equal and none of them is better than others, except by the degree of righteousness, as stated in the Hadith.


ٰ ۚ ۚ ( 49: 13).


O People (Humankind), indeed, We have created you from male and female and made you nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted (Al-Hujurat, 49: 1).


: : " ! "


Companion Jabir Bin Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him (mAbpwh), said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him (pbbuh) said: O people (humankind), your Lord is One and your father (Adam) is one. An Arab person is not better than a non-Arab. A non-Arab is not better than an Arab. A red person is not better than a black person. A black person is not better than a red person, except in his/her righteousness (good deeds benefitting people). The most honored among you is the most righteous. [1] 


A Muslim has to go to Makkah (Mecca) in a pilgrimage, Haj, at least once in ones lifetime, if one is capable to do that physically and financially. This is a visit to the first House of God on Earth. It is now in Saudi Arabia. There, several million Muslims gather every year, responding to God's call, confirming their faith, and remembering the story of the Messenger of Allah Ibrahim (Abraham), peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, when he left his son, Isma'il, and his wife Hajar (Hagger), over there. Then, Ibrahim called on Allah to guide people to join them in that valley, as we learn from verse 14: 37. Thus, the pilgrimage to Makkah is part of Gods response to His Messenger, Ibrahim, peace be to him.


( 14: 37).


Our Lord, I have settled some of my descendants in an uncultivated valley near Your sacred House, our Lord, that they may establish prayer. So make hearts among the people incline toward them and provide for them from the fruits that they might be grateful (Ibrahim, 14: 37).


In particular, pilgrims remember the story of the slaughter and sacrifice. As Ismail grew older, Ibrahim came to slaughter him in obedience to God. It was a test for the three of them. They passed the test by expressing obedience to God and disobedience to the Shaytan (Satan) by throwing stones at him.  


As Ibrahim put his knife on Isma'il's neck, the Angel Jibril (Gabriel) came with the good news that they passed the test and Ibrahim was given a sheep to slaughter instead, as we are told by verses 37: 102-107.


ٰ ٰ ۚ ۖ ﴿١٠٢﴾ ﴿١٠٣﴾ ﴿١٠٤﴾ ۚ ٰ ﴿١٠٥﴾ ٰ ﴿١٠٦﴾ ﴿١٠٧﴾ ( 37: 102-107).


And when he reached with him [the age of] exertion, he said, "O my son, indeed I have seen in a dream that I [must] sacrifice you, so see what you think." He said, "O my father, do as you are commanded. You will find me, if Allah wills, of the steadfast." (102) And when they had both submitted and he put him down upon his forehead, (103) We called to him, "O Abraham, (104) You have fulfilled the vision." Indeed, We thus reward the doers of good. (105) Indeed, this was the clear trial. (106) And We ransomed him with a great sacrifice, (107) (Al-Saffat, 37: 102-107).


Then, Ibrahim and Isma'il rebuilt Al-Ka'ba, the Cubic House of the Lord, the most sacred place of worship for Muslims, to which direction they face in their prayers. Pilgrims perform rituals resembling various parts of the story, as well as orbiting the Ka'ba and worshipping on the sacred places of Mina, Arafat, and Muzdalifa. [2] 



Haj (Pilgrimage): The Fifth Islamic Way of Worship ('Ibada)   


Allah, praise to Him, mentions in verses 51: 56-58 of the Holy Quran that he has created humans and Jinn for the sole purpose of worshipping Him, not to feed or benefit Him, because He the Beneficent to all of His creation.


﴿٥٦  ﴿٥٧  ﴿٥٨﴾ ( 51: 56-58). 


And I have not created the Jinn and humans except to worship Me. (56) I do not want from them any provision, nor do I want them to feed Me. (57) Indeed, it is Allah who is the Provider, the One With Power, the Strong. (58) (Al-Dhariyat, 51: 56-58). 


So, why does Allah command humans to worship Him?


When you think about these five ways of worshipping Allah, praise to Him, you find that all of them have direct benefits to the worshippers, making them good persons, in good families, living in good communities, and good societies, in body and soul. 


Thus, Allah, praise to Him, wants us to follow His commands for our own good, as He is in no need for us or for our worship of Him. But he rejoices that we attempt to be better persons and better societies by worshipping him and following His commands by choice, as He said in verses 22: 37 and 29: 6.


ٰ ٰ ۚ ٰ ٰ ۗ  ﴿ 22: 37.  


Allah does not get their flesh and their blood (the sacrificed animals), but He gets your piety (righteousness). Thus, He has made them subjected to you, so you may glorify Allah that He has guided you. And give good tidings (O Muhammad) to the good doers (Al-'Hajj, 22: 37).


ۚ ( 29: 6). 


And whosoever strives, (he) strives for himself, for Allah is in no need of (His creatures inhabiting) the Worlds (Al-'Ankaboot, 29: 6). 



Verses about Haj (Pilgrimage), as a Mandated Worship 


Verses 96-97 of Surat Al-'Imran (Chapter 3) of the Holy Quran include God's command to Muslims to make the pilgrimage to His First House on Earth, in Makkah: 


﴿٩٦﴾  ۖ ۗ ۚ ﴿٩٧﴾ ( 3: 96-97). 


The First House (of worship) appointed for humankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), a blessed place, and guidance to the worlds (96


Wherein, (there) are clear signs (of Allah's guidance), the place where Ibrahim (Abraham) stood up (to pray), and whosoever enters it is safe. And pilgrimage to the House is a duty on people for Allah, on whoever can find a way (to make it). As for whoever disbelieves, (let him know that) Allah is in no need of (His creatures inhabiting) the worlds. (97) (Al-Imran, 3: 96-97). 


Verse 22: 26 of the Holy Quran mentions that the Haj (pilgrimage) was also ordained on Ibrahim, who was commanded to purify the House of Allah and prepare it (make it ready) for pilgrims, who would come to circumambulate (circle) the Kaba and to perform their prayers around it.


In verses 22: 27-29, Allah, praise to Him, commands His Messenger M'uhammed, pbbuh, and Muslims through him, to renew this way of worship (ibada), which is beneficial to them, during this lower life (by that which they eat and by that which they earn from business transactions) and in the hereafter (by earning Gods mercy and contentment, and consequently His everlasting rewards).


﴿٢٦  ٰ ﴿٢٧  ٰ ۖ ﴿٢٨  ﴿٢٩( 22: 26-29). 


And (mention, O Muhammad), when We designated for Ibrahim the site of the House, (saying), "Do not associate anything with Me," and purify My House for those who circumambulate it (perform Tawaf by orbiting it), and those who stand, bow, and prostrate (in prayer). (26) 


And announce to the people (to come to) the Hajj (pilgrimage), they will come to you on foot, and on every lean camel, they will come from every distant road - (27)  


(They come to observe this worship and) they may witness benefits for themselves, and mention the name of Allah during known days, for what He has provided for them of (sacrificial) animals. So, eat from them, and feed the miserable poor. (28) 


Then, let them end their (i'hram ritual) restrictions, fulfill their vows, and circumambulate (perform Tawaf) around the Shielded (and First) House (Al-Ka'ba)." (29) (Al-Haj, 22: 26-29).  



In his interpretation of verse 22: 28, Ibn Katheer mentions that Muslims generally, and pilgrims in particular, should increase mentioning the name of Allah as well as thanking and glorifying Him, during the first ten days of Dhul 'Hijja. In his interpretation of the "known days, he added that this was a reference to the duration of the Haj (pilgrimage), which starts when pilgrims stand on the Arafat Mountain area, continues to the Eid Day,  and includes two to three days after Eid. 


Concerning the animals, which are sacrificed during the Haj (pilgrimage) time (as mentioned in verse 22: 28), Ibn Katheer reports various interpretations based on Hadiths and Companions opinions. The general conclusion is that the major objective is feeding the people. This includes pilgrims themselves, their acquaintances, and the poor. This means that the verse is promoting the distribution of the sacrificed animal meat, in any way we can. Thus, slaughtering animals, during the Haj (pilgrimage) time, aims at benefiting people, just like all other ways of worship (ibadat), as detailed in Chapter 8 of this book.


A pilgrim can give all of it or half of it to the poor, as stated in verse 22: 28, or keep one-third of it, give  one-third to the acquaintances or neighbors who do not ask, and one-third of it to the needy who ask, according to Al-Qurtubis interpretation of verse 22: 36. 


In explaining verse 22: 29), Al-Tabari mentions the pilgrimage requirements, which need to be observed. These include standing in Arafa and Muzdalifa, slaughtering animals, shaving hair, cutting nails, throwing stones, and making circumambulation around the Kaba, as the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, did.


The three interpreters mentioned that the adjective used in the verse to describe the House of Allah as " 'Ateeq" means ancient but they also added that it means free from tyrants.  



Haj (Pilgrimage) and the Best of Manners 


One of the most beautiful aspects of the Haj (pilgrimage) is the emphasis on practicing the best of manners, which are the manners contained in the commands of Allah, praise to Him, and the teachings of His Messenger, pbbuh. The importance of this emphasis is necessitated by the fact that millions of pilgrims will be together in Makkah, during the Haj (pilgrimage) days every year. In order for them to complete their pilgrimage at ease, in love, and tolerance, they need to practice the best of manners towards one-another.


Such emphasis on practicing the best of manners is mentioned in verses 2: 197-202 of the Holy Quran, which contain Gods directives to pilgrims to abstain from sexual intercourse with their spouses as well as any obscenity in words or actions. The verses also urge pilgrims to avoid any disobedience of Gods commands and any arguments, in order to avoid upsetting one-another. Instead, pilgrims are recommended to do good deeds, mention Gods name as much as they can, ask for His forgiveness, and call on Him to give them the best in this life and in the hereafter.




ۚ ۗ ۗ ٰ ۚ ﴿١٩٧﴾   ۚ ۖ ﴿١٩٨  ۚ ﴿١٩٩  ۗ ﴿٢٠٠  ﴿٢٠١ ٰ ۚ ﴿٢٠٢﴾ ( 197-202).  



In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful


Hajj is (during) well-known months, so whoever has made Hajj obligatory upon himself therein (by entering the state of ihram), there is (to be for him) no sexual activity, no disobedience, and no disputing during the Haj. And whatever good you do, Allah knows it. And take provisions, but indeed, the best provision is piety (righteousness). And be pious to Me, O you the ones with minds (reasoning). (197


There is no blame upon you for seeking bounty from your Lord (during Haj) but when you depart from 'Arafat, mention the name of Allah, at Al-Mash'ar Al-Haram. And remember Him, as He has guided you, for indeed, you were before that (before Islam) among those astray. (198


Then depart from the place from where the people depart and ask forgiveness of Allah. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. (199


And when you have completed your rites, mention the name of Allah and remember Him like your remembrance of your fathers or with (much) greater remembrance. And among the people is he who says, "Our Lord, give us in this world," and he will have in the Hereafter no share. (200


But among them is he who says, "Our Lord, give us good life in this world and good life in the Hereafter, and protect us from the punishment of the Fire." (201

Those will have a share of what they have earned, and Allah is swift in account (202) (Al-Baqara, 2: 197-202). 


The emphasis on practicing the best of manners is also contained in the teachings of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him (pbbuh), such as in the following three Hadiths:


: : " ."


Companion Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him (mAbpwh), said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: I was sent to finalize (for humanity) the best of manners. [3]


It was also emphasized in another Hadith, in which pilgrims were given the good news that their sins would be forgiven if they practice the good manners of abstaining from obscenity and disobedience of Gods commands.


: : " ."


Companion Abu Hurayra, mAbpwh, said that he heard the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, saying: Whoever made a pilgrimage for Allah, without committing obscenity or disobedience, he/she will go back like he/she was born (without any sins). [4]


: : " ." : " ."


Companion Jabir Bin Abdullah, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: The righteous (mabroor) pilgrimage is rewarded by nothing less than Paradise.

Then, the companions asked: O Prophet of Allah: What is the righteous (mabroor) pilgrimage?

He said: It is that in which pilgrims give food away and spread greetings of peace to one-another. [5]


The Prophet's Farewell Pilgrimage Address (Khutbat Al-Wada') 


The Conquest of Makkah was on the 20th day of Ramadhan, of the 8th Hijri year. In the following year, the Prophet, pbbuh, sent Abu Bakr, mAbpwh, to Makkah, as the commander of about 300 Muslim pilgrims. In the 10th Hijri year, the Prophet, pbbuh, headed pilgrims for the first and last time. So, Muslims called it the Farewell Pilgrimage. During his stay in Arafat, he addressed Muslims in what became known as his famous Farewell Address (Khutbat Al-Wada). At night, when he was still in Arafat, he received one of the greatest verses of the Holy Quran (5: 3), which announced the perfection of Gods religion, as represented by enabling Muslims to perform the pilgrimage, the fifth way of worship, as a result of the Conquest of Makkah. It also included the announcement that Allah, praise to Him, has completed His blessings to humans by the completion of His religion to them. Then, the Seal of all Messengers and Prophets died 81 days after that revelation.


 ( 5: 3). 


This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you, and approved for you Islam, as your religion (Al-Maeda, 5: 3). 


The Farewell Address included a summary of important Islamic principles, human rights, and the best of manners, which elevate humans to reach the honored rank Allah, praise to Him, has willed for them. So, the Prophet, pbbuh, urged Muslims to guard the life and property of one-another, live up to the expectations of those who trust them, not to take usurious interests on loans, end family blood feuds, and to obey Allah in that which He allowed and prohibited. The Prophet, pbbuh, also emphasized the good treatment of women.


Further, he mentioned that Muslims will not go astray as long as they follow the Holy Quran and the teachings of the Prophet, pbbuh. He concluded his with the confirmation that Muslims are brothers (and sisters), which means that they should not transgress against one-another or take anything by force from one-another. [6] 



Haj Rituals and Eidul Adhha  


Pilgrims perform various rituals of the Haj (pilgrimage), following the teachings and actions of the Prophet, pbbuh. Before entering Makkah, men put on the two pieces of the white Ihram cloth and women maintain their decent clothes, covering the body, except their hands and faces. This makes them pilgrims equal in appearance and gets them to be ready for performing this majestic worship. When they arrive at the Holiest House of Allah on Earth, in Makkah, they start with greeting Al-Ka'ba, with Tawaf Al-Qudoom, which is composed of seven circumambulations around it. They perform this ritual while the Kaba is to their left, which is against the movement of the clock hands. This is in accordance with the movement law in the universe, such as in the case of electrons in their movement around the nucleus in an atom, or in the case of planets in their movements around the sun, or in the movement of stars around the center of the galaxy, or the movement of galaxies around the center of the universe. [7] 


After performing the seven circumambulations around the Kaba, pilgrims move to an adjacent area, where they perform Sa'i (fast walking for women as well as fast walking and running for men, seven times, between the two points of Safa and Marwa). This ritual is performed as an emulation of that which Hajar, peace be to her, did in her attempts to look for water away from her child, Ismail, peace be to him, then to come back quickly to guard him against predators. Thus doing, she fast walked and sometimes ran between the two points, seven times. Finally, the angel Jibril, peace be to him, struck the rocks, causing water to come out to the surface from the Zamzam well, so that they (and other people after that) can drink from it. [8] 


Then, pilgrims go to the area of Mina, which is about seven kilometers from the Kaba, to rest. There, pilgrims pray Noon (Dthuhr), mid-afternoon (Asr), Sunset (Maghrib), Night (Isha), and Dawn (Fajr) shortened prayers but performed at their regular times. After the sunrise of the 9th day of Dthul Hijja, they move to the area of Namira, where they stay until noon. Then, they move to the area of Arafa (Arafat), which is about twenty kilometers away from the Kaba. There, they pray the Noon (Dhuhr) prayer as two units (rakas), which is directly followed by praying the mid-afternoon (Asr) prayer. After the sunset, pilgrims move to the area of Muzdalifa, where they pray the Sunset (Maghrib) and Night (Isha) prayers, consecutively, with one call for prayers (Adthan) but with two announcements (Iqamas). They spend the night in Muzdalifa and perform the Dawn (Fajr) prayer over there. While being in all these sacred areas, pilgrims keep mentioning the name of Allah, praising and glorifying Him, as well as calling on Him to extend His mercy and blessings to them, their families, and their societies.


Before the sunrise of the 10th day of Dthul Hijja, pilgrims go back to Mina, where they throw the first round of stones (Jamaratul Aqaba), which includes throwing seven stones at the symbolic location of the Shaytan (Satan), saying Allahu Akbar (God is Grater), each time. This is followed by the slaughter of animals (a task performed by sponsors these days), cutting their nails and some of their hair, taking showers, and putting on regular clothes. At this point, pilgrims end their first state of Ihram, which means that they can do anything allowed to them, except being intimate with their spouses.  


In the morning of the 10th day of Dthul Hijja, which is Eidul Adha Day, pilgrims go to the Haram Mosque, to perform the seven circumambulations of the Ifadha Tawaf and the Say between Safa and Marwa. Once they complete these two rituals, pilgrims end their second state of Ihram, which allows them to go back to their normal life, including being intimate with their spouses.


Pilgrims go back to Mina, for rest, and to perform the remaining Haj rituals. Some of them may stay there for two days (11th and 12th of Dthul-Hijja), during which they throw stones at the Shaytan (Satan) symbolic location. Others may choose to stay until the 13th day of Dthul Hijja, to throw a third round of stones, which is better. This ritual is performed as an emulation of that which Ibrahim, peace be upon him, did when the Shaytan (Satan) tried to dissuade him away from obeying Allahs command of slaughtering his son. Ibrahim, peace be upon him, rejected the Shaytan attempts by throwing stones at him, thus passing Allahs test.  The Haj (pilgrimage) is concluded by the Farewell circumambulation (Tawaf Al-Wada), after which pilgrims go back to their countries. [9] 

While pilgrims perform their Haj rituals in Makkah, Muslims around the world gather in Mosques, on the 10th day of Dthul Hijja, to celebrate the climax of the pilgrimage, Eidul Ad'ha. They exalt Allah and glorify Him. They also praise the Prophet, pbbuh, his house, and his companions, singing the Takbeer hymn in Arabic. It's the annual Islamic celebration commemorating the story of the sacrifice and the completion of God's Message to humanity. Then, Muslims go home, where those who are financially capable among them, slaughter animals, cook some of the meat, and distribute the rest among the poor, friends, and neighbors. The Eid day is also a great opportunity to visit relatives, or call them if they live faraway.  [10] 




The Haj (pilgrimage) is the fifth way of worship (Ibada) in Islam, with which Allah, praise to Him, has completed His religion and finalized His blessings to humanity. Through performing this worship, Muslims apply the highest levels of the best manners, get to know one-another, and stand equal before their Creator, despite the differences in their ancestries, skin colors, languages, and wealth.


The Haj (pilgrimage) is also an acknowledgement that there is only one religion. Allah, praise to Him, has sent it to guide humanity, in several messages, through His Messengers, at different times. He has completed it, by the Holy Quran, which was descended to His final Messenger, Mu'hammed, pbbuh.


In addition, the Haj (pilgrimage) represents the deepest and loftiest of meanings. It links Earth with heaven, through visiting the First House of Allah on Earth and through the circumambulation around it, which resembles the movement of the heavenly bodies around their centers. Finally, it represents a high degree of faith, as pilgrims leave everything in this world behind them, to be guests of Allah, in His sacred House, asking Him to give them the greatest of His blessings: His contentment, His love, and an everlasting life in His Paradise.






[1] This Hadith was authenticated as Sahih by Al-Albani: 2700. It was also narrated, with little differences, by Companion Abu Nudhra, mAbpwh. It was part of the Prophets Khutba (address), on the middle of Tashreeq (the 12th day of Dthul Hijja). It was recorded by Al-Busairi: 3/226, Ahmed: 23489, and Abu Naeem: 3/100. Source of the Hadiths: Al-Dorar Al-Sunniya:  


[2] The Haj (pilgrimage) can be watched in many videos posted on the internet, such as:   


[3] Narrator Ibn Rajab mentioned that Malik included this 'Hadith in his book (Al-Muata). Al-Zurqani authenticated it as Sa'hih, in Mukhtasar Al-Maqasid: 184.


[4] Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1521.


[5] Al-Albani mentioned, in Irwa Al-Ghaleel: 3/241, that one of the narrators (Mu'hammed Bin Thabit) was lenient in his talk. The Hadith was recorded by Ahmed: 14,522 and by Al-Tabarani (in Al-Mujam Al-Awsat): 8,405, with little difference.


[6] In their interpretation of verse 5: 3 of the Holy Quran, the three renowned interpreters (Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer) mentioned that it was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, during his Farewell Pilgrimage, on the 9th of Dthul Hijja, of the 10th Hijri year, on a Friday night, in Arafat. This was confirmed by Omar Bin Al-Khattab, Ali Bin Abi


Talib, Muawiya Bin Abi Sufian, Abdullah Bin Abbas, and Sumra Bin Jundub, may Allah be pleased with them all. Al-Suddi said that no prescriptive or prohibitive commands were revealed after it. The Prophet, pbbuh, returned to Medina and died 81 days after that revelation. 


Heres a translation of the meanings of the Prophets farewell address (Khutbat Al-Wada), from the Arabic text, which was authenticated by Al-Albani, in Fiqh Al-Sunna: 454. Its

main parts were also recorded by Muslim (Source: Al-Dorar Al-Sunniya:


: .


O People (Humankind): Listen to that which I say because I dont know if Ill meet with you on this spot, after this year.


: . .


O People (Humankind): Your life and wealth are sacred (should be protected), just like this day and this month are sacred. Youre going to meet with your Lord, and He will hold you accountable of your deeds.




I have delivered the message (of Allah). Whoever is entrusted with any goods, he/she needs to return them to those who trusted them with (Fulfill your responsibilities towards the people who trusted you).


. .


Usury (multiplied and exploitative interest rate) is prohibited (and should be waived). Keep your capital (original amounts of loans) and return the usurious interest (to the borrowers). Nobody should be a transgressor (taking usurious interests) or transgressed upon (paying usurious interests). Allah has decreed that there should be no usury. (As a result), all usurious interests due to Al-Abbas Bin Abdul Muttalib (the Prophets uncle) is all waived.


. .


Every right based on a blood (murder), which was before Islam, should be waived. The first I waive is the right based on the murder of Rabia Bin Al-Harith Bin Abdul Muttalib (the Prophets cousin), who was taken care of as a child by Bani Layth but was killed by (a member of the tribe of) Hudthayl. This is the first pre-Islam blood-based right which I waive (stop).


: .


O People (Humankind): The Shaytan (Satan) is hopeless that you may worship him in this land of yours forever, but he is content to be obeyed in other things, such as your small misdeeds. Beware of his attempts to dissuade you away of (the teachings of) your religion.


: " ۖ ۚ " ( 9: 37) .


O People (Humankind): Indeed, the postponing (of restriction within sacred months) is an increase in disbelief, by which those who have disbelieved are led (further) astray. They make it lawful in one year and unlawful in another year, to correspond to the number made unlawful by Allah, and make lawful what Allah has made unlawful (part of Al-Tawba, 9: 37). Thus, they make unlawful what Allah has made lawful.


" ۚ " ( 9: 36) .


Time is still the same as Allah created the heavens and the Earth, and "the number of months with Allah is twelve months, in the Book of Allah, the day He created the heavens and the earth. Of these, four are sacred" (Al-Tawba, 9: 36), three of them are consecutive and Rajab, which is between Jumada and Shaban.


: . . . . . .


O People (Humankind): Men and women have rights (and obligations) towards each other (that they need to observe). A woman should not allow anybody whom her husband dislikes to enter their home. A woman also should not commit adultery or be harmful to her husband, with words or actions. If she does, Allah has permitted her husband (to punish her) by depriving her of his bed and by beating her slightly. If women stop (committing the wrong doing), provide for them with the expected food and clothes. Treat women nicely because they are devoted in assisting you in your life. You should also treat them nicely because you have taken them (as partners) with a pledge to Allah to do so and because you have access to their bodies, with the word of Allah.


. : .


O People (Humankind): Think about that which I say, which I have delivered (to you). I have left with you the Book of Allah and the Sunna of His Prophet. As long as you follow them, you will never be lost.


: : . .


O People (Humankind): Think about that which I say. You know that every Muslim is a brother (or a sister) to the other Muslim and that Muslims are brothers (and sisters) to each other. It follows that nobody should take something from his/her brother (or sister) except that which is given to him/her willingly and happily. So, dont do injustice to yourselves (by taking something by force from somebody else).


: . : .


O Allah: Have I delivered (Your message)? The pilgrims answered: O Allah, yes (he did).


Then, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: O Allah, be my witness (that they said that I have delivered Your Message to them).  


[6] See a video by Zaghlool Al-Najjar, about the meanings of circumambulation (Tawaf) around the Kaba, at:  


[7] See an article by Imad Mujahid about the scientific meanings of circumambulation (Tawaf) around the Kaba, which was published by the Jordanian Al-Dustoor newspaper, on July 23, 2012: 


[8] See following translation of the meanings of four Hadiths about Say, Zamzam, and throwing stones:


: : : " " (: 2: 158).


ǿ : : . . . (: 4495).


Jabir Bin Abdullah, mAbpwh, once when he was still young, asked the Mother of Believers, the Prophets wife, Aisha, mAbpwh, about the meaning of verse 2: 158, which states: Indeed, Al-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the manifestations of worshipping Allah. So whoever makes (a full) pilgrimage to the House (during the Haj season) or makes a mini pilgrimage in other times (Umrah), there is no blame upon him for walking between them.


He said to her: I do not see (from the verse) that there is an obligation on any (pilgrim) to walk between them. She said: No, if it was like you said, then it should have been: there is no blame upon him for not walking between them. She added that this verse was revealed to the people of Medina (Al-Ansar), who used not to make Say before Islam. It told them clearly to start doing it (Al-Bukhari: 4495).


: :

: " " (: 33: 21).


: (: 1623 : 1234 ).


Amr Bin Dinar, mAbpwh, said that he asked Companion Abdullah Bin Omar, mAbpwt both, about a man who made Tawaf (the seven circumambulations around the House of Allah), would that be considered a full mini pilgrimage (Umrah), so he can be intimate with his wife?


He said (answered): The Prophet, pbbuh, made Tawaf (the seven circumambulations around the House of Allah). Then, he prayed two units (rakas) and made Tawaf (walked) between Al-Safa and Al-Marwa. Bin Omar added verse 33: 21, which states: There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent example (to follow).

Amr Bin Dinar, mAbpwh, also asked Jabir Bin Abdullah, mAbpwt both, the same question. He said: He should not be intimate with his wife until he makes Tawaf (walking) between Al-Safa and Al-Marwa (Al-Bukhari: 1623, Muslim: 1234. Note: The narrators name, Amr Bin Dinar, was mentioned in Islam web).


. . . : " " ( : 4\77 ).


Abdullah Bin Abbas, mAbpwt both, said that Ibrahim brought Ismail and Hajar, peace be upon them all, to Makkah, and placed then at the Zamzam location. He told the Hadith about their story, until he said: Then, as she came from Al-Marwa to Ismail, she saw water coming out of the spring. She started to examine the spring with her hand, until the water accumulated from the spring crack. Then, she began to collect the water into her cup, then into her container. The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: May Allah have mercy on her, if she just let the water come out by itself, it would have been a flowing spring, until the Day of Rising (Ahmed Shakir: 4/77, from Musnad Ahmed).


:   .


. . . . . : ( : 2684).


Mu'hammed Bin Muslim Bin Shihab Al-Zuhri, who followed the Prophets companions, mAbpwh, said: I heard Salim Bin Abdullah, mAbpwh, narrating from his father, that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, used to make takbeer (saying Allahu Akber, meaning Allah is Greater) every time he threw stones at the location adjacent to the Mina Mosque.


Then, he would proceed, facing the direction of the House (of Allah), lifting his arms up and making supplication, in a long stance there. After that, he would come to the second location, to throw seven stones and making takbeer every time he threw a stone. Then, he would go left beside the valley, stand there facing the House, lifting his arms up, and making supplication. Finally, he would come to the location beside Al-Aqaba, where he would throw seven stones, making takbeer every time he threw a stone, but leaving without making a supplication. Al-Zuhri added that the Son of Omar used to do that, also (Shuayb Al-Arna-oot, based on Sunan Al-Darqutni: 2684).


[9] For more details about the Haj (pilgrimage) rituals, see the website of the Saudi Ministry of Haj and Omra, at the following links: (Arabic)


Readers can also read about the Haj rituals, according to Al-Albani, Al-Uthaymeen, and Al-Munajjid, on the following links:'Uthaymeen (English Text) (Al-Munajjid: English text)  (Al-Munajjid: Arabic text, Rituals) (Al-Munajjid: Arabic text) ( )



[10] Ibn Abbas, mAbpwt both, used to make takbeer after prayers, starting from Dhuhr prayer on the Day of Arafa until the end of the Tashreeq days (12th or 13th of Dthul Hijja). He used to say the following (Shu'ayb Al-Arna-oot, Shar'h Al-Sunna: 7/146):



Companions of the Prophet and their followers, mAbpwt all, did not report on a specific or one way to say the Eid Takbeer. The different versions were their individual initiatives, containing glorifying and thanking Allah, praise to him, and praising His Messenger, his house, and his companions.


The following is the most commonly used form of takbeer among Muslims. It is the one used by Imam Al-Shafi-i, may Allah be pleased with him (Al-Um: 2/520):











Sources about Takbeer:




Here's the translation and transliteration of the Eidul Ad'ha Takbeer (Hymn):



Allah is Greater, Allah is Greater, Allah is Greater. There is no other god than Him. 



Allah is Greater, Allah is Greater, Allah is Greater, and to Allah praise is due. 


Allah is Greater,


Much praise is due to Him,


Glory is His: Morning, evening, and at all times. 



O Allah, bless our Master Mu'hammed,


and the family of our Master Mu'hammed, and the


 wives of our Master Mu'hammed,


and the companions of our Master Mu'hammed,


and the offspring of our Master Mu'hammed,


and give them a lot of peace greetings. 


There is no other god than Allah,


and we worship nobody else but Him. 


We are devoted to His religion, even if nonbelievers hate it. 


There is no other god than Allah, the only God. 


Who supported His worshipper. 


Who gave His soldiers the upper hand. 


And defeated the parties of nonbelievers, by Himself only. 


Allah is Greater, Allah is Greater, Allah is Greater,


There is no other god but Him. 


Allah is Greater, Allah is Greater, Allah is Greater,


to Him praise is due. 


Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, La ilaha illa Allah



Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Wa lilahil hamd


Allahu Akbaru Kabeera


Wal hamdu lilahi katheera


Wa subahana Allahi bukratan wa asseela



Allahumma salli ala sayidina Muhammed,


Wa ala ali sayidina Muhammed,


Wa ala azwaji sayidina Muhammed,


Wa ala ashabi sayidina Muhammed,


Wa ala dhuriyati sayidina Muhammed,


Wa sallim tassleeman katheera


La ilaha illa Allah


Wa la naabudu illa iyah


Mukhliseena lahu ideena wa lau karihal kafiroon


La ilaha illa Allahu wahdah


Nassara abdah


Wa azza jundah


Wa hazamal ahzaba wahdah


Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar,


La ilaha illa Allah


Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar,


Wa lilahil hamd







About the Author and the Book:


* The author of this book has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology. He was born in Gaza, Palestine in 1369 Hijriya (1950) but he has been living in the United States since 1986.
The authentic Quran Arabic text is used as a reference for the translation of the meanings of the Quran verses, particularly from


The works of the three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.


  ( 61: 8).  



They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8).




Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent Dalton Islamic Center.