Al-Haram Mosque in Makkah The Prophet's Mosque in Madinah . Al-Aqsa Mosque Compound in Jerusalem


Islam: A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

Table of Contents  

I. Introduction: Basic Information   

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction    

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan    

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity    

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an   

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth   

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise  

7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?    

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings    

9. Spirit, Soul, Mind, Self, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective  

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an    

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure  

11. Islamic Proclamation of Faith  

12. Performing Islamic Prayers  

13. Giving Zakat, Charity, The Third Islamic Duty  

14. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims  

15. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar  

16. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran    

17. Angels  

18. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran     

19. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran   

20. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran  

21. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran    

22. Muhammed in the Holy Quran   

23. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj  

24. The Last Day, The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment

25. God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in What We Say and What We Do  

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran 

2. The La (No) Commands  

3. The Imperative Commands  


Articles with Islamic Perspective:

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings

Are Muslim women second-class citizens  

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

Links to Islamic topics 2006

Links to Islamic topics 2005

Links to Islamic topics 2004

Links to Islamic topics, 2003

2002 Links to Islamic topics




A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity


The Relationship Between the Spiritual and Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

Updated on the 4th of Dhul Qi'da, 1441 - 25th of June 2020





I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful



Allah, praise to Him, started the creation of life on Earth. Then, he left it to evolve, as a result of adaptation to different environments, with His intervention to improve His creation, every now and then, as He wills.

The first creation passed through five main stages, which included starting life in the cell, fashioning in the right proportions, walking on two legs, imaging, and blowing of God's Spirit. The second creation is in the womb, which also includes the five stages of the fertilized egg, leech, lump, bones, and muscles, as discussion in Chapter 4, particularly in Endnotes 6, 7, and 8.

This Chapter is a continuation of previous chapters but with more focus on the fifth stage of creation, the blowing of God's Spirit in human beings, which enabled them to accept the mandate of caliphate they were honored with. This stage is particularly characterized by the human ability of distinguishing between good and evil, as well as the freedom of making decisions about these two paths.

On the basis of the topics which has been discussed in the previous chapters, it is possible to say that every living being on Earth is composed of a material body and a soul, in comparison with the non-living things, such as rocks, which are composed of material substance only.

The soul of living beings on Earth is located in the brain, which is the center of command and control over the body organs. As a result of observing the main functions of the brain, it can be inferred that the soul is composed, at least, of three main interrelated components.

The first component of the soul represents the inherent original software of life, which God, the Eternally Living, the Originator, installed into the first cell, which evolved into various life forms. The original software of life has become the logistical command and control center, which is charged with the automatic functioning of the body organs.

The second component of the soul is represented by the mind software, which enables the living organism to collect information for its own benefit. In doing so, it depends on the normal functionality of the original software of life. Thus, the mind is the entire body of knowledge an organism receives in its entire life, through its senses and through synthetic analysis of the acquired knowledge.

The third component of the soul is represented by the morality software, which God blew from His Spirit in humans, thus distinguishing them from other organisms, as pointed in Chapter 4. It enables humans to create the moral self (personality), through the interaction with others, as well as through successive decision-making and analyses, on the basis of the mentally-acquired knowledge. Two major ideal types of the human self have been identified for thousands of years, which are the good and the evil types. However, logically speaking, a spectrum of various levels of good and evil lies between the two types.

This means that the body internal and external organs are controlled by the inherent life software and that the mind is charged with data collection and processing in all organisms. For humans, the self is the climax of the spiritual side of their existence. Its charged with the decision-making, not only about what benefits them, but also about whats right and wrong in their life.

Thus, the physical aspects of the human existence are not only inseparable from its spiritual aspects, but they are also subordinate to them, as demonstrated in the following examples of the Islamic teachings.


The Five Main Mandated Islamic Ways of Worship:

Islamic teachings have their own spiritual and physical aspects, both of which are necessary for understanding Islam, God's message of guidance to humanity. If Muslims focus on one aspect only, there would be impairment in understanding their religion .

The spiritual and the physical aspects of the Islamic teachings are inseparable, whether these are related to the daily-life interactions with people and the environment, or to performing the five mandated ways of worshipping Allah ('ibadat): the proclamation of faith, performing prayers, giving zakat (charity), fasting the month of Ramadhan, and making the haj (pilgrimage), for those who are able to do it. [1]

1. For example, Muslims cannot keep their faith as a secret, unless there is a serious danger threatening their life. Proclaiming openly and publicly that they are Muslims has many benefits to them, other Muslims, and the community they are living in. It is an announcement that the speaker is going to abide by a set of rules, which guide his/her behavior to the betterment of humanity.

When they proclaim publicly that there is no other God than Allah and Muhammed is His messenger, then they are also saying that they are not here, in this life, by accident. There is a Creator Who has created the Universe and He is in charge of it. They also say that they believe in the guidance the Messenger of Allah brought to humanity: The Holy Quran and the Sunna. Thus, the proclamation of faith is not just uttering spoken words, it is an association of these words with deeper meanings, which influence our life. [2]

2. When Muslims make wudhou' (washing) before performing prayers, it includes physical acts but with clear meanings. Five times a day, washing your hands, mouth, nose, face, arms, ears, hair, and feet aims at cleanliness. This is the essence of the wudhou' requirement. Allah, praise to Him, has required these physical acts, not as meaningless rituals, but to lead to a deeper meaning, cleanliness. He wants humans to be clean and healthy. [3]

The five Islamic prayers (at dawn, noon, mid-after-noon, sunset, and dusk), are all physical acts of standing, bowing, kneeling, prostrating, and sitting down on the ground. These prayer movements are performed in a certain way taught to Muslims by the Messenger of Allah, Muhammed, pbbuh. [4]

These movements, performed five times a day, constitute a physical daily exercise activity, contributing to the welfare and well-being of the human body. Bowing down (rukou), for example, benefits the back muscles and the backbone, which are stretched to relieve them from the pressure formed as a result of sitting or standing, for long hours every day. Prostration (sujood) provides the brain with bigger quantities of blood, with more oxygen and nutrients, than otherwise. It also relieves the brain from the electromagnetic waves, which we get from the air and from the electric and electronic devices we use throughout the day. Finally, sitting down allows thigh and leg muscles, ligaments, and tendons to be stretched, thus becoming more flexible and more healthy.

At the same time, each one of the prayer movements also involves spiritual aspects, represented by contemplation and thinking about the meaning of the verses of the Holy Quran and the words of praise to Allah, which are recited in each prayer movement. These acts of contemplation and thinking have tremendous benefits in terms of creating and maintaining internal mental peace for the worshipper. More important is that, the five prayers keep the worshippers in a continuous contact with their Creator, which influences their behavior positively, strengthens the human self, and contributes to its well-being in this life and the hereafter. Finally, performing the prayers is a great opportunity for calling on Allah, to ask Him for whatever a person may need, particularly during prostration, as recommended by the Prophet, pbbuh. [5]

3. The third mandated Islamic way of worship is Zakat (charity). This is an assistance to the poor in society. It is, at least, 2.5 percent of a persons annual savings. This is an Islamic act of worshipping God through giving away a small part of what He has given to a person, for the benefit of those mentioned in the Holy Quran. If we think about the physical act of giving alone, it may not be understood, as it contradicts with the human nature, which attempts to maximize the potential for survival, by amassing as much wealth as possible, to help achieve that goal. However,  when we think about the meanings (the spiritual aspects)  associated with it, it can be perfectly understood.

Giving zakat (charity) spreads love, compassion, and mercy in society. It is a practical application of social solidarity. Without it, the poor will be left alone to fend for themselves, which creates feelings of injustice and leads to instability in society. Conversely, Zakat represents a constructive social interaction, in which Zakat recipients feel that there are those who give them a hand and help them in society. Thus, love and compassion spread among people, instead of the harmful negative feelings.

Zakat also means that the wealth of a person may not be the result of his/her work alone. A lot of wealth is inherited directly from parents or relatives. It may be also inherited indirectly because of one's gender, race, ethnicity, national origin, or citizenship status. Moreover, people receive more indirect wealth, in the form of public spending, in such areas as education, health care, roads, and security services. Consequently, they should think of the wealth they have as a gift from Allah, the Ultimate Giver, Who expects them to give part of it, as a "known right," for those who are the less fortunate, in the area of the accumulation of wealth, as stated in verse 24 of Surat Al-Ma'arij (Chapter 70) of the Holy Quran. [6]

Finally, Zakat means purification, in Arabic. Thus, giving assistance to the poor and the needy purifies the self of the giver and makes him/her a purer (better) person, which brings more happiness to him/her, just like the happiness people feel when they assist and care for their children. 

4. The fourth mandated Islamic way of worship is fasting during the month of Ramadhan. This means that Muslims abstain from eating, drinking, smoking, and sexual intercourse during the day time. This extends from about one hour before the Sun rises until the Sun sets. [7]

Without proper understanding of Islam, fasting will be an act of starving and tormenting people. In fact it has so many benefits both to the human body and the human self.

Physically, it strengthens the body through getting rid of unnecessarily gained fats throughout the year. If people fast properly, by doing the same daily activities and eating food normally at the end of the fasting day, they are more likely to lose weight. It has become a fact that losing weight is prescribed by medical doctors as a medication for and prevention of many diseases. It keeps people healthy and looking good.

Fasting is also beneficial for the digestive system organs, like the stomach and the intestines, which are bombarded for many hours every day with a lot of food to process and digest. Fasting the month of Ramadhan gives them a break, which rejuvenates them and makes them more healthy. Moreover, the body gets rid of unhealthy cells by denying them nutrients, as priority goes to the healthy cells first.

Spiritually, fasting leads to contemplation about hunger and hungry people in a person's community and around the world. That's why Muslims are most generous in Ramadhan. It leads to giving charity and other acts of support for and social solidarity with the poor.

Finally, fasting is training for the self that to control body desires and resist the temptation for indulgence in food. Moreover, the strength gained by the self enables it to resist other desires like taking advantage of or controlling others, which are prevalent in our planet at this time.

For all these great physical and spiritual benefits, Muslims around the world end the month of Ramadhan by Eidul Fitr, which is a celebration of breaking the fast. Its observed by a collective prayer, in which all men, women, and children in the community participate. Then, people enjoy special meals and visit relatives and friends.

5. The fifth mandated Islamic way of worship is the pilgrimage, Haj, to Makkah, at least once in a person's lifetime, if he/she is capable of doing that. This is a visit to the first House of Allah on Earth. There, about three million Muslims gather to confirm their faith as well as remember and act out the story of the Messenger of Allah Ibrahim (Abraham), when he left his son, Ismail, and his wife Hajar (Hagger), there (Peace be upon all of them). Then, when Ismail grew older, his father Ibrahim came to slaughter him in obedience to God, Who was just testing him. They passed the test, and Ibrahim was given a sheep to slaughter instead of his son. Then, the two of them rebuilt Al-Ka'abah, the House of the Lord, and thus the most sacred place of worship for Muslims on Earth. [8]

The Haj act of worshipping Allah, praise to Him, involves physical as well as spiritual aspects. It requires a lot of walking between the House of the Lord and other holy Makkah areas, like Mena, Arafat, and Muzdalifah, as well as making Tawaf (circling) around Al-Ka'bah and Sa'i (fast walking or running) between Al-Safa and Al-Marwa.

Because it requires physical strength and financial capabilities (travel and lodging expenses), it has been prescribed only on those who are capable to do it, once in a person's lifetime.

Haj also includes slaughtering an animal and feeding it to the poor. Millions of animals are killed in Makkah then shipped to the poor around in the world. It is a direct benefit to the poor but also gives happiness to the pilgrims as givers.

Spiritually, pilgrims returning from Makkah describe a great feeling of happiness, as their pilgrimage becomes the climax of their spiritual journey in this life. They feel completed and accomplished, which gives them a feeling of content about their existence on this planet. Thus, the pilgrimage to Makkah contributes to spreading happiness and peace around the world.

For the rest of Muslims around the world, the Haj days are observed by contemplating about the meanings of this way of worship (ibada), by fasting the day of Arafa, and by celebrating Eidul Adhha, in commemoration of the story of the sacrifice. It is a great day of expressing appreciation to their Creator, for all of His blessings, particularly of having good families and prosperous communities.


Examples from Daily-Life Interactions

The Holy Quran and the Sunna guide Muslims in their daily life interactions with people and the environment. In every teaching of Islam, the physical aspects cannot be separated from the spiritual aspects of what Muslims are supposed to do, as they observe the Islamic teachings.

Without proper understanding for this inseparability between the physical and the spiritual aspects of the teachings, some people may get lost or may start exaggerating the physical act, which takes them away from the meaning of the teaching. Here are some daily-life examples about the relationship between the two aspects.

On Friday, Muslims are instructed to take a shower, particularly after sexual intercourse, clean their teeth, put on the best clothes they have, and not to eat onions or garlic before coming to the mosque for the weekly collective prayers. 

Once in the mosque, Muslims are also instructed to complete the first lines. when they stand for prayers, they need to be connected to each other, leaving no empty spaces between them.

Muslims are also instructed not to be arrogant or bragging in their words, actions, attitudes, or even in their clothing.

Whenever women go out of their homes, they are instructed to cover their body decently, as their beauty should be only shown to their husbands. At home, they can take off some of their clothes in the presence of members of their immediate families (father, mother, brother, sister, uncles, aunts, nieces and nephews). [9]



Why are Muslims instructed to take a shower, clean their teeth, put on the best clothes they have, and not to eat onions or garlic before coming to the mosque for the weekly collective prayers?

All these teachings lead to benefits for them as individuals and as groups but also there are deeper meanings beyond any physical act, which may lead to benefits to the individual, other people involved in the interaction, and to society at large.  

The rationale behind the divine command, for Muslims to perform congregational (collective) prayers on Fridays, is that He wants them to gather for His worship in the masjid, where they listen to the sermon (khutba), as a weekly lesson, which educates them about their religion. In addition, Friday gatherings enable them to know each other and cooperate in doing good deeds, which benefit them on the individual, community, and societal levels.

The Prophet, pbbuh, emphasized that the attentive listening to the sermon (khutba) is a main goal of attending the Friday congregational prayer at the masjid. That's why he forbade any talk by worshippers while the imam is giving the sermon. He also mentioned that God's rewards for worshippers increase by the early coming to the masjid, before the start of the sermon. [10]

Taking a bath (showering) is cleanliness. It benefits the body by removing the sweat and dust. However, it benefits other people in the Mosque, who are sitting close to each other. A shower removes the smelling of human odors that may not be pleasant to others. Most importantly is that worshippers need to be clean, as they speak to their Creator, while they pray to Him. [11]

Putting on clean and good clothes also benefits the person by feeling good and benefits other people who like to interact with clean people in pleasant contexts. What matters is the cleanliness of clothes, not the colors, as the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, put on different colors of clothes, like white, red, and green. He also put on green and black head dresses. [12]

The Prophet, pbbuh, also taught that worshippers need to clean their teeth before performing every prayer, using a toothbrush-like plant root (miswak). This is an application of the overall Islamic principle of cleanliness, which means that, in our time, people need to use the best available means to achieve this goal, shuch as toothbrushing, mouth washing, and flossing. 

Eating onions and garlic before going to the mosque may leave particles of these foods sticking to the mouth of the person who eats them. Thus, the smelling may harm other people in the mosque, who may be sensitive to these smells. Then, the teaching here for Muslims is to be careful not to do anything that may cause harm or discomfort to others. This can be generalized to other foods or other odors. [13]

Why are Muslims instructed to complete the lines, including the first, when they stand for prayers? If not, then you may find them scattered irregularly in the Mosque, which is inefficient use of the space, to say the least. Also, being in lines, they become closer to the imam, hearing him clearly. [14]

Muslims are also instructed not to be arrogant or bragging in their words, acts, attitudes, or even in their clothing. At the time of revelation, people who had long gowns reaching the ground were described as arrogant or bragging, as poor people had less expensive, short gowns. [15]

If you take it literally, all Muslims should have shorter pants or gowns (Thawb), but this is not what the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, wanted Muslims to do. Today, pants and gowns come in various lengths but are sold for the same price. So, the length of your pants does not correlate with wealth or poverty and consequently with humility or arrogance.

This way, we can understand why the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, instructed Muslim men not to wear golden ornaments or silk clothes. The goal is that these are used by women for beauty purposes, something men should not try to emulate. [16]

Finally, whenever women go out of their homes, they are instructed to cover their body, as their beauty should be only shown to their husbands. At home, they can take off some of their clothes in the presence of members of their immediate families (father, mother, brother, sister, uncles, aunts, nieces, and nephews). [17]

There is a deep meaning here. It's not an attempt to control women. It's a true understanding of the human nature. If followed properly, society will avoid a lot of the problems it faces unnecessarily. It is natural for men to be looking at women, if they see them covered decently, they usually deal with them with respect. Thus, the Islamic teaching for women to wear decent clothing when they are outside is for their own protection and well-being.



Allah, praise to him, has bestowed on humans the gifts of life, knowledge acquisition, and morality, through installing the software of life, mind, and self in them. Using these gifts wisely enables us to understand the meanings of what we do, what is happening around us, and consequently be happy in this life and in the hereafter.

When we think about the Islamic teachings with this perspective, we can see that these are not meaningless rituals. To the contrary, Islamic teachings make perfect sense, as they guide our daily interactions, for our well-being as individuals, communities, and societies. Following them properly requires thinking about the deeper meanings and goals which are associated with them. However, without such thinking, we may go astray, away from what Allah, praise to Him, wants us to understand and do, for our benefit here and in the hereafter.



The Arabic texts of verses mentioned in this Chapter, and throughout this Book, are copied from the portal. The basic translations of verses are copied from the Saheeh International, also carried on the same website. However, this author is solely responsible for the final translations, as he made changes to the original translation, when he deemed that needed.

The Arabic texts of Hadiths mentioned in this Chapter, and throughout this Book, are taken from two main 'Hadith portals: and However, this author is solely responsible for the final interpretations and translations.

Some of the Arabic texts of Hadiths (Prophet's sayings) mentioned in this Chapter, and other chapters of the Book, are taken from Riyadh Al-Sali'heen, which is the title of a book that contains strongly documented 1903 Hadiths of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him (pbbuh). It was written by Imam Abu Zakariya Yahya Bin Sharaf Al-Nawawi, who died in 671 Hijriya, May Allah reward him for his great work. 

This author verified the authenticity of the cyber version of Riyadh Al-Sali'heen by comparing it with the above-mentioned paper version, as far as the listed Hadiths are concerned. However, there is a difference of three numbers between the cyber and paper versions. For example, Hadith of Sumra is numbered in the paper version as 777 but it is numbered in the cyber version as 780. Another example is the Hadith narrated by Al-Bara', which is numbered in the paper version as 778 but numbered in the cyber version as 781, and so on. 

An Arabic-only cyber version is posted on the Hadith Portal website can be accessed at:

An English-translated version of Riyadh Al-Sali'heen, with Hadith numbers in sequence, just like the original paper version, but it is an English-only cyber version,  can be accessed at:

An Arabic cyber version with English translation of Riyadh Al-Sali'heen, divided into books (as done by Al-Nawawi), with numbered Hadiths, can be accessed at:

For example, the Hadith number 1082, about straitening prayer lines and completing them, can be found in the Book Number 9 (The Book of Virtues), which contains Hadith's Numbers 991 (988 in the paper version) - 1264 (1267 in the paper version).

[1] The five Main Islamic ways of worship (the Pillars of the Islamic faith structure) were mentioned throughout the Holy Quran but were summarized in the following famous Hadith:   

: " " (: 8 4514 : 16 : 1075).

 Abdullah, the son of 'Omar Bin Al-Khattab, mAbpwt both, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: "Islam has been built on five (pillars): The proclamation that there is no other god than Allah and that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah, performing the prayers, paying the zakat,  making the pilgrimage, and fasting in Ramadhan" (Al-Bukhari: 4514, Muslim: 16, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1075).

[2] The declaration of faith is based on such verses in the Holy Quran as 2: 255 and 48: 29, as follows: 

ٰ  ( 2: 255).

 ( 48: 29).

Allah! There is no god but He, the Eternally Living, the Sustainer of the Universe (Al-Baqara, 2: 255).

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (Al-Fat'h, 48: 29).

[3] The command for making wudhou' (washing) before prayers is mentioned in verse 5: 6 of the Holy Quran. However, the Verse did not include cleaning the mouth, nose, and ears. These were added details by the Prophet, pbbuh, as a Sunna.

  ( 5: 6).

O you who have believed! When (before) you rise to (perform) prayer, wash (with water) your faces, your hands and arms to the elbows, touch (rub) over your heads, and your feet to the heels (Al-Maida, 5: 6). 

Cleaning the mouth and the nose were mentioned in the following 'Hadiths:

  : " " ( : 144 ).

: " ()" (: 162 : 237 : 140 : 86 ).

Laqeet Bin Sabra, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: "When you make wudhou', clean your mouth (by rinsing it with water then spitting it out) (Abu Dawood: 144, and authenticated by Al-Albani).

Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: "When one of you makes wudhou', let him clean his nose by getting water into it then blowing it out (Al-Bukhari: 162, Muslim: 237, Abu Dawood: 140, Al-Nissa-i: 86, and authenticated by Al-Albani).

Cleaning the ears and touching (rubbing) the head with water were mentioned in the following narrations about how the Prophet, pbbuh, did it: 

: (: 34 ).

( : 121 : 905\1).

Al-Rubayi', daughter of Mu'awadh, mAbpwh, narrated that she saw the Prophet, pbbuh, touching (rubbing) his head with water, front and back, his cheeks, and his ears, once (Al-Tirmidhi: 34, and authenticated by Al-Albani).

Al-Miqdam and Ibn 'Abbas, mAbpwt both, narrated that the Prophet, pbbuh, touched (rubbed) his head and ears, inside and outside (Abu Dawood: 121, Al-Albani: 905/1).

[4] The command for establishing prayers is mentioned 17 times in the Holy Quran, including 5 times in the singular form, in verses 11: 14, 17: 78, 20: 14, 29: 45, and 31: 17. It was also mentioned in the plural feminine form once, in verse 33: 33, and in the plural form 11 times, in verses 2: 43, 2: 83, 2: 110, 4: 77, 4: 103, 10: 87, 22: 78, 24: 56, 30: 31, 58: 13,  and 73: 20. Establishing prayer is also mentioned 17 more times as a characteristic of believers, followed directly by giving Zakat (charity), in verses 2: 177, 2: 277, 4: 162, 5: 9, 5: 12, 5:55,  9: 11, 9: 18, 9: 71, 19: 31, 19: 55, 21: 73, 22: 41, 24: 37, 27: 3, 31: 4, and 98: 5. Here are three examples of such verses: 

 ( 2: 43).

   ( 2: 110).

( 24: 56).

And establish prayer and give zakat, and bow with those who bow (in worship) (Al-Baqara, 2: 43).

And establish prayer and give zakat, and whatever good you put forward for yourselves you will find it with Allah. Indeed (Al-Baqara, 2: 110).

Establish the prayers, pay the charity, and obey the Messenger, in order to have mercy (Al-Noor, 24: 56). 

[5] The two 'Hadiths about how Muslims pray and about supplication during prostration (sujood) are as follows:

: " ." (: 631 6008 : 674 : 893).

: " " ( : 875 : 482 : 95).

Malik Bin Al-'Huwayrith, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: "Pray as you have seen me praying" (Al-Bukhari: 631, 6008, Muslim: 674, and authenticated by Al-Albani: 893).

Abu Hurayra, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: "The closest the worshiper maybe to his Lord (God) is when he is prostrating. So, make supplication there, as much (as you can) (Abu Dawood: 875, Muslim: 482, Al-Albani: 95).

[6] The command for giving charity (Zakat) is mentioned 9 times in the Holy Quran, all of which are following the command for prayer, in the same verse. These are in verses 2: 43, 2: 83, 2: 110, 4: 77, 22: 78, 24: 56, 33: 33, 58: 13,  and 73: 20.

Giving Zakat (charity) is also mentioned as a characteristic of believers 17 times, following establishment of prayer, as mentioned in Endnote 4, and once alone, in verse 7: 156.

The categories of the charity (Zakat) recipients are mentioned in verses 9: 60, 2: 177, and 70: 25, which will be listed and discussed in Chapter 13 of this book.

[7] The command for fasting is mentioned in verse 2: 183 but it was specified to be observed during the month of Ramadhan, in verse 2: 185, as follows: 

( 2: 183).

ٰ ۚ ۖ  ( 2: 185).  

O you who have believed, fasting (has been) decreed upon you, as it was decreed upon those before you, that you may become righteous (Al-Baqara, 2: 183). 

The month of Ramadhan is the month in which the Quran was sent down, a guidance for people, and clear verses of guidance and the criterion (for distinguishing right and wrong). Therefore, whoever of you witnesses the month, let him fast it (Al-Baqara, 2: 185). 

[8] The command for the Haj, pilgrimage, is mentioned in Surat Al-'Imran (Chapter 3), Verses 97 of the Holy Quran, as follows: 

  ( 3: 97).

And people owe Allah a pilgrimage to the House, by whoever is able to find thereto a way (Al-'Imran, 3: 97).


[9] The command for the establishment of the Friday, Jumu'a, prayer is mentioned in verse 62: 9, of the Holy Quran, as follows: 

ٰ  ٰ ( 62: 9).

O you who have believed! When the prayer is called for on the day of Jumu'a (Friday), then hasten to the remembrance of Allah, and leave business (trading). That is better for you, if you just know (Al-Jumu'a, 62: 9).

[10] The following are texts of three Hadiths about going to the masjid (mosque) before the start of the khutbah (sermon) and listening to it attentively:   

: " " (: 7672 : 851 : 934).

Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: If you say to the person sitting beside you: Listen, while the imam is giving the Friday (Jumua) sermon, then you have committed a mundane talk sin (Ahmed: 7672, Muslim: 851, Al-Bukhari: 934).

The Hadith means that you should be listening attentively to the Friday sermon, to the extent that If a person is talking beside you, you shouldnt tell him to listen. Instead of speaking, make a sign for him to stop talking.

: : " " ( : 1050 : 857 : 498 : 1090 : 9484 ).

Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: Whoever makes proper wudhu (washing) before coming to Friday (Jumua) prayer. Then, he/she listens attentively, he/she will be forgiven, from a Friday prayer to another, and three more days, but if he/she touches the floor stones (in distraction), then he/she has committed mundane sin" (Abu Dawood: 1050, Muslim: 857, Al-Tirmidhi: 498, Ibn Maja: 1090, Ahmed: 9484, Riyadh Al-Saliheen: 1148, and authenticated by Al-Albani).

: " (: 881 : 850 : 351 ).

Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: Whoever takes a bath (shower) on Friday, for purification, then he/she goes to the masjid (mosque) early, it is considered as if he/she sacrificed a camel (to feed the poor, for the sake of Allah). Whoever goes after that, it is considered as if he/she sacrificed a cow. Then, it is considered as a goat, a chicken, and an egg, respectively. When the imam starts (to give the sermon), the angels come to listen (Al-Bukhari: 881, Muslim: 850, Abu Dawood: 351, and authenticated by Al-Albani).

[11] The following Hadith is about taking a bath (showering) before coming to the Friday (Jumu'a) prayer:

: " " (: 877 : 844 : 1375 : 1151).

Ibn Umar, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: "Each one of you (needs) to take a bath (shower) before coming to the Friday (Jumua) prayer (Al-Bukhari: 877, Muslim: 844, Al-Nissa-i: 2375, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1151, and authenticated by Al-Albani).  

[12] The following two Hadiths and two narrations are about wearing clothes of different colors, such as white, red, and green, as well as black head dresses:

: : " " (: 2810 : 1896 : 3567 : 20166 : 780).

Sumra, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: Wear white clothes and use white coffins, as it (looks) better and more pure (Al-Tirmidhi: 2810, Al-Nissa-i: 1896, Ibn Maja: 3567, Ahmed: 20166, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 780).  


: . (: 3551 : 2337 : 781).

Al-bara, mAbpwh, said: I saw the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, wearing a red suit, I have never seen better than him (Al-Bukhari: 3551, Muslim: 2337, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 781).  

  : ( 4206 : 2812 : 5319 : 7117 : 783).

Rifaa Al-Tamimi, mAbpwh, said: I saw the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, wearing two green (long) shirts (Abu Dawood: 4206, Al-Tirmidhi: 2812, Al-Nissa-i: 5319, Ahmed: 7117, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 783).  

  (: 1358 : 784 ).

Jabir Bin Abdullah, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh. conquered Makkah while wearing a black head dress (Muslim: 1358, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 783, and authenticated by Al-Albani).  

[13] The following are texts of Hadiths about brushing teeth before prayers and about avoidance of eating raw onions, garlic, and leek (shallot) before coming to the masjid (mosque), as the strong smell coming out of these vegetables hurts people and angels alike. These vegetables need to be cooked well, in order to kill their smell, as Caliph 'Omar, mAbpwh, said:   

: " " (: 887 : 252 : 46 : 22 : 7 : 287 : 9549).

Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: People need to brush their teeth before every prayer but I dont want to be hard on my Ummah (Community of believers) by making it mandatory (Al-Bukhari: 887, Muslim: 252, Abu Dawood: 46, Al-Tirmidhi: 22, Al-Nissa-i: 7, Ibn Maja: 287, Ahmed: 9549).

: : " " (: 855 : 564 : 3822 : 1806 : 707 : 15299 : 1703).

: " " ( : 564 : 854 1703).

Jabir, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: Whoever eats (raw) garlic and onion, let him not come to our mosque, or near us (Muslim: 564, Al-Bukhari:855, Abu Dawood: 3822, Al-Tirmidhi: 1806, Al-Nissa-i: 707, Ahmed: 15299, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1703).  

In another version of the Hadith, he said: Whoever eats (raw) garlic, onion, and leek (shallot), let him not come to our mosque, as angels get hurt of things which hurt humans (Muslim: 564, Al-Bukhari:854, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1703).

: : . . ( : 567 1704).

Umar Bin Al-Khattab, mAbpwh, said in one of his Friday (Jumua) sermons: "O people! You eat (two bad raw vegetables) garlic and onion. I saw the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, commanding a man to get out of the mosque if he smells eating them. So, if you want to eat them, kill the smelling by cooking them well" (Muslim: 567, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1704).  

[14] The following two 'Hadiths are about straitening prayer lines and completing them:  

  : : " ǿ " : ǿ : " " (:  430 1082 : 818).

Jabir Bin Sumra, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: "Dont you want to line up (in your prayer), like the angels line up near their Lord?" We said: O Messenger of Allah: How do they line up near their Lord? He said: "They complete the lines and they stand side by side of each other" (Muslim: 430, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1082, and authenticated by Al-Albani).   

: : " " (: 723 : 433 : 1087).

Anas, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah (pbbuh), said: "Straighten your lines, as straightening up lines is part of performing the prayer (Al-Bukhari: 723, Muslim: 433, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 1087).  

[15] Here are some verses about the prohibition of arrogance:

( 31: 18).

Allah does not like (those who are) self-deluded and boastful (Luqman, 31: 18).

ۖ ( 39: 72).

(To them) it will be said, "Enter the gates of Hell, to abide eternally therein, and wretched is the residence of the arrogant" (Al-Zumar, 39: 72).

( 46: 20).

So, this Day, you will be awarded the punishment of (extreme) humiliation, because you were arrogant upon the earth, without right, and because you were defiantly disobedient."


The following two Hadiths are about avoiding the use of clothes for bragging and showing off (Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 791):

: " " ( : 3415 : 4/239 : 93).

Anas Bin Malik, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: "Allah has revealed to me (to tell you) to be humble, and not to transgress against each other" (Ibn Maja:3415, Al-Busairy: 4/239, Ibn Hijr Al-'Asqalani: 93). 

: " " (: 3665 : 72\9 : 4085 : 791 ).  

Abdullah, the Son of Omar, mAbpwh, said that the Prophet, pbbuh, said: "Whoever drags his shirt (long gown reaching the floor), as a show off, Allah will not look at him on the Day of Rising (Al-Bukhari: 3665, Ahmed: 72/9, Abu Dawood: 4085, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 791, and authenticated by Al-Albani). 

[16] Here's a 'Hadith, which prohibits men from wearing golden ornaments or clothes made of silk:

  : " " (: 1720 : 5148 : 19533 : 808). 

Abu Moussa Al-Ashari, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: "Wearing silk and gold is prohibited for men of my Ummah (Community of believers) but it is allowed for the females among them (Al-Tirmidhi: 1720, Al-Nissa-i: 5148, Ahmed: 19533, Riyadh Al-Sali'heen: 808).

[17] The command for women to cover their body decently when they go out of their homes is mentioned in Verse 31 of Surat Al-Noor (Chapter 24), and in Verse 59 of Surat Al-A'hzab (Chapter 33), of the Holy Quran, as follows: 

  ( 24: 31).

And tell the believing women to lower their gazes, and guard their private parts, and not expose their adornment (beauty), except that which (necessarily) appears thereof (Al-Noor, 24: 31).

 ٰ ٰ    ( 33: 59).

O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters, as well as the women of the believers to bring down over themselves (part) of their outer garments. That is more suitable (for them) that they will not be known. So, they will not be harmed. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful (Al-A'hzab, 33: 59).  


About the Author and the Book:

* The author of this book has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology. He was born in Gaza, Palestine in 1369 Hijriya (1950) but he has been living in the United States since 1986.
The authentic Quran Arabic text is used as a reference for the translation of the meanings of the Quran verses, particularly from

The works of the three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.

  ( 61: 8).  

They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8). 


Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent Al-Jazeerah's.