Al-Haram Mosque in Makkah The Prophet's Mosque in Madinah . Al-Aqsa Mosque Compound in Jerusalem


Islam: God's Message of Guidance to Humanity


By Hassan Ali El-Najjar


Table of Contents


I. Introduction: Basic Information


1. Islam: A Brief Introduction


2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan 


3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity 


4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an


5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth


6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise

Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?  


8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings  


9. Spirit, Soul, Mind, Self, and Happiness, from an Islamic Perspective


10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an  


II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure


11. Islamic Proclamation of Faith


12. Performing Islamic Prayers


13. Giving Zakah (Charity)


14. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims


15. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam


III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar


16. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran 


17. Angels


18. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran  


19. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran


20. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran


21. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran  


22. Muhammed in the Holy Quran


23. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj


24. The Last Day, The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment


25. God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha



IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in Speech and Deeds


1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran


2. The La (No) Commands


3. The Imperative Commands 




Articles with Islamic Perspective:


Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective


"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture


Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews


Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings


Are Muslim women second-class citizens  


The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with


Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010


Links to Islamic Topics 2007


Links to Islamic topics 2006


Links to Islamic topics 2005


Links to Islamic topics 2004


Links to Islamic topics, 2003


2002 Links to Islamic topics




God's Message of Guidance to Humanity




Preserving the Holy Quran,


Discovering Parchments in British and German Libraries




By Hassan Ali El-Najjar






146 2015






I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful






Copies of the Holy Quran Parchments found in the Tubingen University Library:



Discovering Authentic parchments of copies of the Holy Quran in Birmingham and Tubingen Universities


In July 22, 2015, there were media news reports (CNN) about discovering a copy of the Holy Quran dating back to sometime between 568 645 AD, according to radio-carbon dating method, with 95% accuracy. This period spans the life of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and the time of his three successors, Al-Khulafa Al-Rashideen, may Allah be pleased with them.


The parchments, written on animal skin, were discovered in the Birmingham University library, in the UK. They contained parts of Surat Al-Khaf, Surat Maryam, and Surat Taha (Chapters 18, 19, and 20) of the Holy Quran, written in Hijazi style.


On November 14, 2014, the Medieval Histories magazine reported that the library of Tubingen University in Germany announced the discovery of a copy of the Holy Quran, written in a Kufi style, dating back to the same period.


Researchers dated this copy to the period between 649 -675 AD, with 95.4% accuracy, using the C 14 Radiocarbon dating method. This period spans the rule of Caliphs Uthman and Ali, may Allah be pleased with them.


The MA VI 165 manuscript in the Tubingen University library contains a large section of the Quran, from Chapter 17, verse 37 to Chapter 36, verse 57.


1. Thus, the Birmingham University copy is the oldest so far as it dates back to some time before 645 (the year Uthman became a Calif, may Allah be pleased with him.


2. Up until today, the famous Sanaa manuscript has been viewed as the oldest manuscript, dating back to almost exactly 671 AD.


3. The MA VI 165 script (Tubingen) cannot be narrowed down further than between 649 AD to 675 AD, so now both documents are tied for the oldest copy record.


Chronology of the Revelations and the Four Caliphs:


The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, started receiving revelation at age 40 for about 23 years: About 610 - 632.


Abu Bakr, mabpwh, was the first Khalifa (Caliph), succeeding the Messenger of Allah. He ruled for two years: 632 634.


Omar, mabpwh, was the second Khalifa (Caliph), succeeding the Messenger of Allah. He ruled for two years:: 634 644.


Uthman, mabpwh, was the third Khalifa (Caliph), succeeding the Messenger of Allah. He ruled for twelve years:: 644 656


Ali, mabpwh, was the fourth Khalifa (Caliph), succeeding the Messenger of Allah. He ruled for five years:: 656 - 661





Background About Discovery of Quran Parchments in British and German University Libraries


Worlds oldest Quran discovered and may be linked to Imam Ali


by Rahat Husain -  Nov 19, 2014




A copy of the newly discovered Ma VI 165 Quranic script - which may be the oldest copy of the Quran in the world.


WASHINGTON, November 19, 2014


Researchers from the Project Coranica at the University Library in Tbingen, Germany have discovered a copy of the Quran that may be the oldest in the world, dating to within 20-40 years of the death of Islams Prophet Muhammad. The copy of the Quran, dubbed Ma VI 165 by scientists, appears in the famous Kufic script, popularized by Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib who moved the center of the Islamic government to Kufa in the after being elected as Caliph in 656 AD. The manuscript with a 95.4% statistical probability can be dated to the period between Ad 649 -675, according to Medieval Histories Magazine.


The timeline for when the manuscript was created, coupled with the fact that Imam Ali was one of the few early Muslims that was literate, lends strongly to the notion that this manuscript is linked to the Imam. The theory is bolstered by the fact that of the first several Muslim leaders after the death of Prophet Muhammad, Imam Ali was the only one who had memorized the Quran in its entirety and became a Hafiz.


That the manuscript is on a high quality parchment that has survived for more than 1,339 years with minimal preservation methods employed, further indicates that the document was created for official purposes, perhaps in relation to the work of Imam Alis Islamic government.


Imam Ali is viewed by Shiite Muslims as the true successor to Prophet Muhammad, and the first in a line of holy leaders tasked with bringing justice to the world. For Sunni Muslims, Imam Ali is revered as the fourth and final righteous Caliph.


The manuscript will be on display in Germany, as the University Library states This coming autumn one of the parchment fragments will be on view to the public in Antwerp in the exhibition Holy Scriptures Holy Places. Judaism, Christianity, Islam, in the Hendrik Conscience Heritage Library. This will be a perfect opportunity to bring these new findings to the attention of a wider audience.


According to university representative Dr. Eva Mira Youssef-Grob, The Coranica project includes a module named computatio radiocarbonica where palaeographical analysis and dating of the oldest manuscripts of the Qurʾān will be supplemented by scientific methods such as radicarbon dating


The results for manuscripts dated by colophon and their C14-age will be set in relation to the measured values ​​of undated pieces


With this research, the actual precision and significance of C14 datings can be determined for early manuscripts of the Qurʾān. The selection forms a representative sample from the known manuscripts in ḥiǧāzī ductus, which are considered the oldest written textual witnesses of the Quran their temporal proximity to the proclamation of Muḥammad is still discussed today.


The MA VI 165 manuscript appears to contain a large section of the Quran, from Chapter 17, verse 37 to Chapter 36, verse 57. Interestingly, the first verse of the manuscript seems to poetically foretell the preservation of the document. The first part of the verse is translated as Nor walk on the earth with insolence: for thou canst not tear the earth apart


The entire manuscript can be viewed here. Up until today, the famous Sanaa manuscript has been viewed as the oldest manuscript, dating back to almost exactly 671 AD. The MA VI 165 script cannot be narrowed down further than betwee 649 AD to 675 AD, so now both documents are tied for the oldest copy record.


The MA VI 165 script is viewed as a very early Quran because it is written in something called the Hijazi variant, a type of Arabic writing that is sloped and has a distinctive style. Quranic manuscripts that utilize the Hijazi variant typically draw immediate attention from researchers, as the script is only used in very early Quran manuscripts.


Imam Ali has gained great attention this year, having been quoted by notable celebrities and politicians. In the most recent instance, NFL player Pierre Garcon posted a famous saying of Imam Ali on social media.


This article is the copyrighted property of the writer and Communities Digital News, LLC. Written permission must be obtained before reprint in online or print media.






Tests reveal Quran manuscript is among oldest in the world, says UK university


By Laura Smith-Spark, CNN


Updated 11:02 PM ET, Wed July 22, 2015


| Video Source: CNN


London (CNN)


For years, the two parchment leaves covered in an elegant early form of Arabic script were misbound with leaves of a similar Quran manuscript dating from the late seventh century.


Now, with the help of radiocarbon analysis, the two fragments have been shown to be decades older -- which puts them among the oldest known examples in the world, according to researchers at the UK's University of Birmingham.


The testing, which is more than 95% accurate, has dated the parchment on which the text is written to between 568 and 645 AD, the researchers said.

This means it was created close to the time of the Prophet Mohammed, who is generally thought to have lived between AD 570 and 632 AD, they said.


The ancient fragment is part of the university's Mingana Collection of Middle Eastern manuscripts, held in the Cadbury Reseach Library. They were gathered in the 1920s by Alphonse Mingana, a Chaldean priest who was born near Mosul, Iraq, but settled in England.


The two parchment leaves are believed to contain parts of Suras (chapters) 18 to 20, written with ink in an early form of Arabic script known as Hijazi.


And according to Professor David Thomas, professor of Christianity and Islam, the text is very similar to what is found in the present day Quran.


"This tends to support the view that the Quran that we now have is more or less very close indeed to the Quran as it was brought together in the early years of Islam," he said.

Written on parchment, stone, camel bones


Thomas and Nadir Dinshaw, professor of interreligious relations at the University of Birmingham, said the results of the radiocarbon analysis had been "startling" and "could well take us back to within a few years of the actual founding of Islam."


The animal from whose hide the parchment was made could have been alive in the lifetime of the Prophet Mohammed, or shortly afterward, they said in a university news release.

According to Muslim tradition, they said, the Prophet Mohammed received the revelations that form the Quran between 610 and 632 AD.


"At this time, the divine message was not compiled into the book form in which it appears today. Instead, the revelations were preserved in 'the memories of men.' Parts of it had also been written down on parchment, stone, palm leaves and the shoulder blades of camels," the researchers said.


It was only under Caliph Abu Bakr, the first leader of the Muslim community after Mohammed, that the collection of all Quranic material was ordered to be gathered in the form of a book, they said.


"The final, authoritative written form was completed and fixed under the direction of the third leader, Caliph Uthman, in about AD 650. Muslims believe that the Qur'an they read today is the same text that was standardised under Uthman and regard it as the exact record of the revelations that were delivered to Muhammad."

'Global significance'


The researchers hailed the discovery as being of particular significance to Birmingham because the city is culturally diverse with a large Muslim population.

Susan Worrall, director of special collections at the Cadbury Research Library, described the manuscript as "a treasure that is of global significance to Muslim heritage and the study of Islam, as well as being a source of great pride to the local community."


Dr Muhammad Isa Waley, lead curator for Persian and Turkish Manuscripts at the British Library, said: "This is indeed an exciting discovery.

"We know now that these two folios, in a beautiful and surprisingly legible Hijazi hand, almost certainly date from the time of the first three Caliphs."

Torn page from Quran sells for $68,000 at auction


CNN's Vasco Cotovio contributed to this report.




Sensational Fragment of Very Early Quran Identified


11. November 2014


Qur'an fragment Tbingen University Library Ma VI 165


A fragment of a Quran in the University Library may be dated back to the 7th century


Qur'an fragment Tbingen University LibraryExperts have recently studied three samples of a fragment of a Quran, which has been in the University Library in Tbingen since the end of the 19th century. Their conclusion is that the parchment with a 95.4% statistical probability can be dated to the period between Ad 649 -675. It thus seems to have been written 20 40 years after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Such an early date is really a world record. The date has been established through modern C14 radiocarbon analysis at a lab in Zrich.


The study has been undertaken in connection with a wider research project funded by the German Research Society (DGF) and the corresponding French institution: Agence National de la recherch (ANR). The project aims to study the Quran as a material object. Focus is apart from technical studies like these on palaeographic analysis.

The Tubingen manuscript with the signature Ma VI 165 belongs to a collection of more than 20 Quran fragments in the holdings of the University Library:


The parchments are inscribed in Kufic script, one of the oldest forms of writing of Arabic. The handwriting had attracted the attention of scientists because of its characteristic style and format. It is characterised as a very early script variant (ḥiǧāzī); however, the dimensions of the letters are quite small in comparison to what is common in other early manuscripts. Hence the very early date has surprised the experts. Another early manuscript is the so-called Sanan-fragment, which has been determined too be earlier than AD 671.


The investigated Quran manuscript with the signature Ma VI 165




Verses from the Holy Quran about assembling and preserving it


  ﴿٢١﴾   ﴿٢٢﴾ ( 85: 21-22).


But this is an honored Quran (21) [Inscribed] in a Preserved Slate (22)  (Al-Burooj, 85: 21-22).


( 15: 9)


Indeed, We sent down the Admonition (the Quran) and indeed We are preserving it. (15: 9)



  ﴿١٦﴾   ﴿١٧﴾   ﴿١٨﴾   ﴿١٩﴾ ( 75: 16-19).


Move not your tongue with it, [O Muhammad], to hasten with recitation of the Qur'an.  (16) Indeed, upon Us is its collection [in your heart] and [to make possible] its recitation.  (17) So when We have recited it [through Gabriel], then follow its recitation.  (18) Then upon Us is its clarification [to you].  (19) (Al-Qiyama, 75: 16-19).


ۗ ٰ ۖ ( 20: 114).


So high [above all] is Allah, the Sovereign, the Truth. And, [O Muhammad], do not hasten with [recitation of] the Qur'an before its revelation is completed to you, and say, "My Lord, increase me in knowledge (Taha, 20: 114).


ۚ  ( 4: 82).


Do they not reflect upon the Quran? If it had been from [any] other than Allah, they would have found within it much contradiction (Al-Nissa, 4: 82).


ٰ ٰ ٰ ( 10: 37).


And it was not [possible] for this Quran to be produced by other than Allah, but [it is] a confirmation of what was before it and a detailed explanation of the [former] Scripture, about which there is no doubt, from the Lord of the Worlds ( Younus, 10: 37).



  ﴿٣٨﴾   ﴿٣٩﴾

  ﴿٤٠﴾ ۚ   ﴿٤١﴾ ۚ   ﴿٤٢﴾


  ﴿٤٤﴾   ﴿٤٥﴾   ﴿٤٦﴾   ﴿٤٧﴾

  ﴿٤٨﴾   ﴿٤٩﴾

  ﴿٥٠﴾   ﴿٥١﴾

  ﴿٥٢﴾ ( 69: 38-52).


So I swear by what you see  (38) And what you do not see  (39)


[That] indeed, the Qur'an is the word of a noble Messenger (40) And it is not the word of a poet; little do you believe.  (41) Nor the word of a soothsayer; little do you remember.  (42)


[It is] a revelation from the Lord of the worlds.  (43)


And if he (Muhammad) had made up about Us some [false] sayings (44) We would have seized him by the right hand;  (45) Then We would have cut from him the aorta.  (46) And there is no one of you who could prevent [Us] from him.  (47)


And indeed, the Qur'an is a reminder for the righteous.  (48) And indeed, We know that among you are deniers.  (49)


And indeed, it will be [a cause of] regret upon the disbelievers.  (50) And indeed, it is the truth of certainty.  (51)


So exalt the name of your Lord, the Most Great.  (52)  (Al-Haaqa, 69: 38-52).




Verses About Revealing the Holy Quran in Arabic


In addition to His promise of assembling and preserving the Holy Quran, Allah, praise to Him, chose to reveal His Message to humanity, the Holy Quran, in Arabic, and stated that the Message will be explained and clarified.


This means that Arabic will continue to be spoken and Arabic speakers will continue in existence to explain the Holy Quran to people as long as life exists on this planet.


( 21: 107).


And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worlds  (Al-Anbiya, 21: 107).


There are ten verses which mention the Arabic language of the Holy Quran. These are 12: 2, 13: 37, 16: 103, 20: 113, 26: 195, 39: 28, 41: 3, 42: 7, 43: 3, and 46: 12.


  ( 12: 2).

ٰ ۚ ( 13: 37).

ۗ ٰ ( 16: 103).

ٰ ( 20: 113).

  ﴿١٩٢﴾   ﴿١٩٣﴾ ٰ   ﴿١٩٤﴾   ﴿١٩٥﴾  ( 26: 192-195).

( 39: 28).

( 41: 3).

ٰ ٰ ۚ ( 42: 7).

( 43: 3).

ٰ ۚ ٰ ٰ ( 46: 12).


Indeed, We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur'an that you might understand (Yousuf, 12: 2).


And thus We have revealed it as an Arabic legislation. And if you should follow their inclinations after what has come to you of knowledge, you would not have against Allah any ally or any protector (Al-Raad, 13: 37).


And We certainly know that they say, "It is only a human being who teaches the Prophet." The tongue of the one they refer to is foreign, and this Qur'an is [in] a clear Arabic language  (Al-Nahl, 16: 103).


And thus We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur'an and have diversified therein the warnings that perhaps they will avoid [sin] or it would cause them remembrance (Taha, 20: 113).


And indeed, the Qur'an is the revelation of the Lord of the worlds.  (192) The Trustworthy Spirit has brought it down  (193) Upon your heart, [O Muhammad] - that you may be of the warners -  (194) In a clear Arabic language.  (195)  (Al-Shoura, 26: 192-195).


[It is] an Arabic Qur'an, without any deviance that they might become righteous (Al-Zumar, 39: 28).


A Book whose verses have been detailed, an Arabic Qur'an for a people who know (Fussilat, 41: 3).


And thus We have revealed to you an Arabic Qur'an that you may warn the Mother of Cities [Makkah] and those around it and warn of the Day of Assembly, about which there is no doubt. A party will be in Paradise and a party in the Blaze (Al-Shoura, 42: 7).


Indeed, We have made it an Arabic Qur'an that you might understand (Al-Zukhruf, 43: 3).


And before it was the scripture of Moses to lead and as a mercy. And this is a confirming Book in an Arabic tongue to warn those who have wronged and as good tidings to the doers of good (Al-Ahqaf, 46: 12).





Hassan Ali El-Najjar is a native speaker of Arabic. He has a Master's degree in Cultural Anthropology and a Ph.D. in Sociology.




Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent Al-Jazeerah's.